Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Events with over 1000+ Conferences, 1000+ Symposiums and 1000+ Workshops on Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business.

Explore and learn more about Conference Series : World’s leading Event Organizer

Conference Series Conferences gaining more Readers and Visitors

Conference Series Web Metrics at a Glance

  • 3000+ Global Events
  • 100 Million+ Visitors
  • 75000+ Unique visitors per conference
  • 100000+ Page views for every individual conference

Unique Opportunity! Online visibility to the Speakers and Experts

Renowned Speakers

Meshari Mohammed

Meshari Mohammed

King Salman Armed Forces Hospital Saudi Arabia

Hidekazu Fukamizu

Hidekazu Fukamizu

Hamamatsu University Japan

Young Bong Kim

Young Bong Kim

Konkuk University South Korea

Youhoon Chong

Youhoon Chong

Konkuk University South Korea

Gerry Nicolaes

Gerry Nicolaes

Maastricht University Netherlands

Hiba Natsheh

Hiba Natsheh

Hebrew University of Jerusalem Israel

Hazal Ezgi Gültekin

Hazal Ezgi Gültekin

Gazi University Turkey

Vaclav Vetvicka

Vaclav Vetvicka

University of Louisville USA

Recommended Global Pharmaceutical Sciences Webinars & Conferences

Europe & UK

Asia Pacific & Middle East


Euro Pharmaceutics 2023

About Conference

Conference Series!! Cordially invites participants from all over the world to attend 4th World Congress on Pharmaceutics, Formulations & Novel Drug Delivery Systems with a theme of  Futuristic Scope of Next Generation Drug Delivery on Pharma Industry scheduled during November 13-14, 2023 at Barcelona, Spain.

The event offers a best platform with its well organized scientific program to the audience which includes interactive panel discussions, keynote lectures, plenary talks and poster Sessions. Pharmaceutics & Drug Delivery Systems is a global platform to discuss and learn about research Advances in Drug Delivery Research, Drug Targeting and Design, Nano medicine & Nanotechnology, Pharmaceutical Technology, Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Discovery, Novel Drug Delivery Systems, Pre-formulation & formulation  aspects, Bio pharmaceutics and Biologic Drugs.


The conference invites Directors, Group Leaders, Professors, Associate Professors, Lecturers, Research Associates, Scientists, Investigators,  business delegates from Leading Universities, Pharmaceutical companies, Formulation Scientists, Medical Devices, Researchers, Health care professionals, across the globe providing a better podium, interconnecting the latest research, technological developments in the arena as well as therapeutic aspects. Participating at Novel Drug Delivery International conference will be an excellent opportunity to meet eminent personalities in the fields of pharmaceutics and learn about the latest technological advancements in Novel Drug Delivery systems.

The scientific program includes Keynote & Plenary talks, Video Presentations, Poster Presentations and E-Posters. Furthermore, oral communications of (post)doctoral junior scientists will be considered. It is the goal of the organizers to make this meeting an event of scientific excellence, attractive to both industrial and academic scientists in Pharmaceutical & Novel Drug Delivery systems of Relevant Field.

Conference Benefits:

•   Live Sessions
•   Certification of Recognition
•   Meet your Academic idols
•   Hear about latest research
•   Engage in High level debates & Q/A
•   Networking for future collaboration
•   Add Research Value
•   Networking Sessions

Target Audience

  • Pharma Research Community
  • R&D Researchers from Pharma Industries
  • Directors of Organizations
  • CEO's of Organizations
  • Business Development Managers
  • Chief Scientific Officers
  • Academia
  • Drug Delivery Entities
  • Medical Groups
  • Related Associations
  • Biomedical Device Industries
  • Medical Device Industries


Sessions and Tracks

Track 1: Pharmaceutics

Pharmaceutics are one of the primary factors for developing a drug as it involves in converting a new chemical entity to a completely novel product which can be used for the treatment of any disease. Pharmaceutics is one of the major components that are taken into consideration while developing a novel drug as it primarily involves in predicting the perfect amount of dosage that is necessary for an individual to get treated for the specific condition.

Track 2: Pharmaceutical Science and Research Advancements

Pharmaceutical research is the process through which potential new medicines are identified. It involves a wide range of scientific disciplines, including biology, chemistry and pharmacology. Research Drug development is the process of bringing a new pharmaceutical drug into the market once a lead compound has been identified through the process of drug discovery. Research and development used in developing the new series or products or improvement of existing products and services. 

  • Pharmacoepidemiology
  • Pharmaceutical Cell Biology
  • Pharmaceutical regulatory sciences
  • Recent trends in pharma technology
  • Prevalance of Potential drugs

Track 3: Process Validation

Process validation is defined as the collection and evaluation of data, from the process design stage throughout production, which establishes scientific evidence that a process is capable of consistently delivering quality products.

  • Prospective Validation This type of validation is performed before production, during a product's development stage
  • Concurrent Validation
  • Retrospective Validation
  • Revalidation

Track 4: Drug Discovery and Development

A drug goes from being an idea in the lab to something that a doctor prescribes. To do this, it must go through a long development and approval process. During this process, researchers make sure the drug is safe for people to take and effectively treats cancer. This process often takes many years and significant resources. But the actual amount of time and money needed depends on the drug.

There are 3 main steps in finding and developing a new drug:

Track 5: Novel Developments in Drug Delivery System

  • Controlled Drug Delivery System
  • Ocular Drug Delivery System
  • 2D & 3D Printing in Drug Delivery
  • Drug Delivery: Devices And Equipments

Novel Drug delivery System can be referred as, approaches, formulations, technologies, and systems for transporting a pharmaceutical compound in the body as needed to safely achieve its desired therapeutic effects.

In current research, Drug delivery systems has described in four broad categories:

  • Routes of delivery,
  • Delivery vehicles,
  • Cargo
  • Targeting strategies.

Drug delivery can be in a variety of ways by:

  • Swallowing
  • Inhalation
  • Absorption through the skin
  • Intravenous injection.

Drug delivery systems can be:

Track 6: Pharmaceutical Formulation

Pharmaceutical formulation, in pharmaceutics, is the process in which different chemical substances, including the active the drug, are combined to produce a final medicinal product. The word formulation is often used in a way that includes dosage form.

Track 7: Pharmacology & Toxicology

Pharmacology is a branch of medicine or pharmaceutical sciences. It mainly deals with the study of the body's reaction to drugs.

Interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect a normal or abnormal biochemical function. Any substances that possess medicinal properties are considered to be pharmaceuticals.

Sub-divisions of Pharmacology mainly include:

  • Pharmacotherapeutics
  • Toxicology
  • Experimental pharmacology
  • Clinical Pharmacology
  • Chemotherapy

Toxicology studies the negative consequences of pharmaceuticals and chemical substances as well as treatment options, while pharmacology studies the positive effects of drugs.

Track 8: Formulation Design and Pharmaceutical Technology

All pharmaceutical products are formulated to specific dosage forms for drugs to be effectively delivered to patients. Typical pharmaceutical dosage forms include oral tablets, capsules, solutions, suspensions, topical ointments, gels, and solutions, and injections for intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), or subcutaneous (SC) administration. In addition, various drug delivery systems have been developed for transdermal, intranasal, and pulmonary deliveries. Different dosage forms require different pharmaceutical technologies and usually present different technical challenges for formulation development.

Because of the complex technical challenges scientists encounter during formulation development, it is important to use an effective methodology. Design of experiments and statistical analysis have been applied widely to formulation development, and are useful in process optimization and process validation. The major advantage of using Design of experiments to develop formulations for pharmaceutical products is that it allows all potential factors to be evaluated simultaneously, systematically, and quickly.

Track 9: Pharmacogenomics

Pharmacogenomics is an important example in the field of precision medicine aimed at tailoring treatment to an individual or group of individuals. Pharmacogenomics studies how DNA affects the response to drugs. In some cases, your DNA can affect whether you react badly to a drug, or whether a drug helps or doesn't work for you. Pharmacogenomics can improve your health by helping you know in advance if a drug can benefit you and if you are safe to take.

Track 10: Drug Discovery and Screening

Modern Drug discovery includes screening hit identification, medicinal chemistry, and affinity, selectivity(to reduce the potential for side effects), efficacy, metabolic stability (toextend half-life), and oral. Includes optimization of those hits to determine for increased bioavailability

Screening methods based on phenotypic Drug detection have been used to discover new natural products mainly of terrestrial origin. Examples of exploring marine natural products are provided. The Future Trends section provides a comprehensive overview of recent advancements that will benefit the Pharmaceutical industry.

Track 11: Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology

Pharmaceutical microbiology and animal biotechnology have developed as a useful field for the assembly of biological products from microbial cells or animal or human cell biological concepts and manipulations within the field have improved the assembly, variety and kinds of biological products produced.These areas must be further developed with in the future. 

Track 12: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

Pharmacokinetic activity depends on the amount of drug levels at the target site . Recent advances in analytical and quantitative methodologies are often non-invasive assessments of drug pharmacokinetics at the site of action for better understanding of pharmacokinetic properties.

Pharmacodynamics is affected by various factors including receptor binding and sensitivity, post receptor effects, chemical interactions,  physiologic changes due to genetic mutations, diseases, aging, or impact of other drugs. Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics explain the effects of drugs to the host body.

  • Drug disposition
  • Applied Pharmaceuticals
  • Causality Evaluation
  • In-vivo and In-vitro studies
  • Stability tests

Track 13: Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Discovery

Medicinal chemistry is a discipline at the overtone of chemistry, particularly synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents. Earlier, medicinal chemists often optimized and developed compounds without much knowledge of the drug target or pathway in mind. New skills have had an enormous impact on drug discovery since the mid-20th century. Once hits are identified from high throughput screening (or other sources) the chemists may become involved in hit to lead (h2l) studies when hits from screens are effectively triaged and closely scrutinized for ability to serve as full blown lead compounds. Medicinal chemistry has, therefore, grown to encompass a greater range of scientific disciplines in the drug discovery process in order to minimize the cost, time and risk of development. The arrival of newer high powered computational capabilities was one catalyst for this approach. to succeed in the discovery process medicinal chemists have to perform these initial important tasks: identification of lead molecules which have the desired biological activity using new technologies such as hits and combinatorial chemistry, the lead modification or optimization which could be done by employing structure-activity analysis and scale-up of the optimized lead for further drug development process and efficacy testing.

Track 14: Pharmaceutical Analysis

Pharmaceutical analysis is a branch of practical chemistry that involves the series of process of identification, determination, qualification and purification of a substance, separation of the components of a solution or mixture, or determination of structure of chemical compounds. Pharmaceutical analytic studies uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify and quantify matter. In practice, separation, identification or quantification may constitute the entire analysis or be combined with other method. Separation isolates analytes, while quantitative analysis determines the numerical amount or concentration, and qualitative analysis determines the quality of product.

  • GMP method development and validation
  • Drug analysis
  • Spectroscopy and its techniques
  • Modern technologies used in analysis
  • Bio analysis
  • Quality assurance and quality control

Track 15: Biosimilars

A biologic drug that closely resembles another biologic drug (called a reference drug) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Biosimilars and reference drugs are made from living organisms, but they can be made in different ways and froms lightly different substances. To qualify as a biosimilar, a biologic drug must demonstrate that it is safe, works well, and functions like its reference drug.The drug should also be administered in the same manner, in the same dose and condition as the reference drug. A biosimilar drug must be approved by the FDA and may cost less than a reference drug.

Track 16: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular and supra molecular scale. Nanotechnology advances the utilization of materials and devices with extremely small dimensions. Nanotechnology is designed to provide a new and improved approach to cancer diagnosis and treatment. Nano scale devices can interact with large biological molecules on the both surface and inside cells involved in cancer.  

  • Nanobiotechnology
  • Nanomedicine
  • Nanomaterials for Drug Delivery
  • Personalized Nanomedicine
  • Nano Drug Delivery and Nanotoxicity

Track 17: Drug Targeting and Design

Drug discovery is the processing which new candidate medications are discovered. From this process potential new drugs are obtained. Drug designing is the effort to develop a new drug by molecular modification of for optimization of desired effects and minimization of side effects if drug. The goal of drug discovery is to deliver one or more clinical candidate molecules, each of which has sufficient evidence of biological activity at the target relevant to disease as well as sufficient safety and drug like properties so that it can be entered into human testing.

Track 18: Pharmaceutical Engineering

Pharmaceutical engineering is branch of engineering focused on Discovering, Manufacturing and formulating the medications. This includes designing and operating the machines, determining product presentation, designing and packaging of labels. This mainly consists of a data that is related to devices used in pharmaceutical industry.

  • Significance and scope

Track 19: Pharmaceutical Chemistry

Basically, it consists of assorted pieces of identifiable proof, and then an efficient, intensive engineered transformation of new fictitious elements to make them suitable for restorative use. This includes specialist research being developed on the engineering and computational components of existing drugs and their bioactivity, i.e. understanding their structure-action connections (SARs). Science is centered on the quality components of the solution and well-being is guaranteed due to restorative factors.

  • Protein structure prediction and molecular simulation
  • Biochemistry
  • Exploratory development
  • Complementary medicine
  • Protein structure prediction and molecular simulation

Track 20: Drug Safety and Pharmacovigilance

In the world of medicine, drug safety is known as drug safety. This has to do with the opposing effects of pharmaceutical items, as well as many other logical considerations, such as drug reactions, the nature of the solution, and prescription error in drug use, drug viability, and counterfeit pharmaceuticals. Supports holistic health programs by providing reliable data for effective assessment of the risk-benefit profile of pharmacovigilance solutions.

Track 21: Biomaterials in Drug Delivery

Biomaterials have enhanced oral and injectable drug delivery, the most common modes of drug administration, while also creating new avenues for Drug Delivery including via pulmonary, Transdermal, ocular, and Nasal routes. The application of Biomaterials in the drug delivery system has overcome the limitation we were facing in delivering drugs. It has increased the Bioavailability at the site, reducing the side effect of drugs.

  • Colloidal gold
  • Hydrogel
  • Osmotic-controlled release oral delivery system

Track 22: Nanomaterials

Nanomaterials are materials with at minimum one exterior dimension of 100 nanometres or internal structures of 100 nanometers or less. Nanoparticles, nanotubes, rods, and Nanofilaments are some examples. Nanomaterials with the same content as known materials in the compound state may have distinct physical and chemical characteristics and react differently in the body than the same substances in bulk form. As a result, they may pose a variety of risks. Accumulated nanomaterials must also be considered in this perspective, as they may have qualities comparable to single nanoparticles, especially if they have a disproportionately high surface area for a given quantity of material.

  • Biocomposites made of new magnetic-carbon materials
  • Biosensors and Metallic Nanoparticles
  • Nanocomposites of Industrial Relevance
  • Multiferroic Materials with Thin Films and Nanostructures

Track 23: Industrial Pharmacy

Industrial Pharmacy also plays a crucial role in any drug discovery. To any novel drug discovery the industrial approach is very important to get massive commercial application. Few things which have to be considered by industries to provide a safe and cost affective medicine to the patients like Supply chain, Waste management, Product management, Post- marketing surveillanceGood manufacturing practices and Marketing.

The U.S. pharmaceutical market is the world’s most important national market. Together with Canada and Mexico, it represents the largest continental pharma market worldwide.

  • Waste management
  • Product management
  • Post- marketing surveillance
  • Good manufacturing practices

Track 24: Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals

Biotherapy is also termed as Biological Therapy or Immunotherapy. It is a type of treatment that uses the substances made from living organisms such as a virus, gene, or a protein to treat a disease. Those substances may occur naturally in the body or may be made in the laboratory. Common biological agents used are:

  • Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors
  • B-cell inhibitors
  • Interleukins (IL) inhibitors
  • Selective co-stimulation modulators

Radiopharmaceuticals are also known as medicinal radio compounds are unique medicinal formulations that contain radioisotopes. Radioisotopes are bound to biological molecules able to target specific organs, tissues, or cells within the human body. The radioactive drugs can be used in the diagnosis and, for the therapy of diseases. Radiopharmaceuticals emit radiation themselves, which is different from contrast media which alter or absorb external electromagnetism or ultrasound. Radio pharmacology is the branch of pharmacology that specializes in these agents.

  • Radiopharmaceuticals can be divided into four categories:
  • Radiopharmaceutical preparation
  • Radionuclide generator
  • Radiopharmaceutical precursor
  • Kit for radiopharmaceutical preparation


Market Analysis


The global pharmaceutical market size was valued at $1250.24 billion in 2021 and is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate $1700.97 billion in 2025 at a CAGR of 8%. Pharma is a field of medicine discovers and market drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as medications. Region/country wise pharma market report is available at Euro Pharmaceutics 2023

Market Analysis:

Global pharmaceutical industry completely relies on research and development to expand its offerings among consumers. Continuous development of drug compounds, discovery of new ones, and establishment of most effective routes for drug delivery after intensive clinical trials are crucial. Allied Market Research presents a compilation of reports, which offers a quantitative analysis of growth indicative figures and extensively defines each sub-segment of the market. These furnish our clients an insiders approach to the industry, and assist stakeholders in forming investment strategies.

The pharmaceutical market is experiencing constant growth due to the worldwide increase in life expectancy, as well as the increasing incidence of chronic and infectious diseases. The steadily increasing demand for innovative drugs has thus triggered a significant rise in R&D investments in the pharmaceuticals industry. Leading industry players allocate around 20% of their turnover to R&D to maintain a competitive edge. The emergence of biopharmaceuticals has opened a new arena for drug discovery; and breakthroughs in the fields of proteomics and genomics have also enabled drug manufacturers to develop more effective drugs and therapies. While the industry has begun attracting significant public funding and tax exemption, it still faces the challenges of short product lifecycles and of developing blockbuster drugs. The pharmaceuticals industry is dominated by the U.S., which holds around 45% of the global market share. However, the markets in emerging economies like in China and India are expected to show a double digit growth.

The pharmaceutical landscape has undergone a massive transformation with the emergence of new technologies, cost-effective, and more efficient manufacturing approaches. In addition, increasing investment flow in this space has impacted the market growth positively. Manufacturing floor downtime and the production of product waste are reduced by the implementation of robotic technology and Artificial Intelligence (AI). In addition, single-use disposable solutions have gained momentum in this industry and have replaced conventional open transfer manufacturing techniques. Furthermore, the paradigm shift towards integrated, smart, and data-rich paperless operations has resulted in error-free and precise production. Such ongoing developments have propelled drug manufacturing.

The pharmaceutical industry is responsible for the research, development, production, and distribution of medications. The market has experienced significant growth during the past two decades, and pharma revenues worldwide totaled 1.42 trillion U.S. dollars in 2021.

The research-based totally Pharmaceutical industry plays a vital position in restoring Europe to increase and making sure destiny competitiveness in advancing international financial system. In 2016 it invested an expected € 35,000 million in R&D in Europe. It without delay employs 745,000 humans and generates 3 to 4 times greater employment circuitously – upstream and downstream – than it does without delay. Besides the additional regulatory hurdles and escalating R&D costs, the sector has been seriously hit via the effect of fiscal austerity measures delivered with the aid of governments across an awful lot of Europe in view that 2010.

All new medicines introduced into the market are the result of lengthy, costly and risky research and development (R&D) conducted by pharmaceutical companies:

By the time a medicinal product reaches the marketplace, a mean of 12-thirteen years may have elapsed because the first synthesis of the new active substance.

On average, only one to two of every 10,000 substances synthesised in laboratories will successfully pass all stages of development required to become a marketable medicine.

The fragmentation of the EU pharmaceutical market has led to a rewarding parallel exchange. This advantages neither social security nor sufferers and deprives the enterprise of additional resources to fund R&D. Parallel trade was envisioned to amount to € five,361 million in 2015.

In 2021, research and development spending in the pharmaceutical industry totaled some 238 billion U.S. dollars globally. For comparison, R&D expenditures totaled 137 billion dollars in 2012. Pharmaceutical R&D includes all steps from the initial research of disease processes, the compound testing over pre-clinical, and all clinical trial stages. At a certain point in the process – mostly during the pre-clinical phase – a governmental authority is involved to overview, regulate, and ultimately approve the drug. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is the principal agency associated with processes.

The pressure to innovate

In comparison to other industries, pharmaceutical companies are more driven by the imperative to manufacture innovative products, and thus to spend significant amounts on research and development. This is largely due to the time-limited patent protection of drugs and the following threat of sales erosion through generic and biosimilar competition. Two major effects of patent expirations for the pharma industry are a specific high R&D intensity and a growing focus on specialty drugs to diversify their product portfolio.

The latest trends

For the last several years, major developments in pharmaceutical research and development have begun to change the R&D landscape. A growing number of drug manufacturers are outsourcing large parts of R&D, mostly to clinical research organizations (also contract research organizations), with the main aim to reduce costs. Another important development is the use of big data in clinical research. Thus, a predictive modeling is possible which uses clinical and molecular data to develop safer and more efficient drugs. Particularly, real-time or real-world evidence (RWE) is becoming a greater interest. This makes cooperation with technology companies necessary and includes data gathered from various sources, even that of social media.

Forecasts indicate that the European Pharmaceutical Market is set to develop from 169 billion euros in 2015 to 206 billion euros ($229.5 billion) in 2022, exhibiting a compound annual boom charge of three.25 over the period.

According to a brand new report from lifestyles science marketplace intelligence corporation Evaluate, increase is largely because of improvements in oncology, despite the fact that step-change advances are also emerging across other remedy areas which include multiple sclerosis, persistent coronary heart failure, rheumatoid arthritis and Alzheimer’s. The document is the first to investigate the European drug market to 2022, primarily based on consensus drug forecasts, utilizing statistics from Evaluates newly-launched “European Drug Forecasts” module.

“In a system, ultimately paid for by governments, this raises questions on the sustainability of the current funding model and presents challenges for payers in Europe. To reduce the friction between payers and industry, a new collaborative approach to funding needs to be established, ultimately reflecting the benefits that some of the new innovations are generating throughout the whole healthcare value chain.”

Key findings from the report include

AbbVie’s (NYSE: ABBV) Humira (adalimumab) with 2022 sales of 1.462 billion euros) loses its number one position to Bayer’s (BAYN: DE) Xarelto (rivaroxaban), with 2022 sales of 2.607 billion euros as the top selling drug in Europe by 2022, but is expected to keep its market leadership position despite biosimilar threats.

Xarelto tops the bestseller list, strongly supported by analysts’ consensus (worldwide sales in 2022 anticipated at about $8 billion) and fuelled by the expected expansion into follow-on indications such as chronic heart failure.

The hepatitis C hurricane will slowly fade away as Gilead Sciences’ (Nasdaq: GILD) Sovaldi (sofosbuvir), with 2015 sales of 1.443 billion euros to 2022 sales of 609 million euros, and Harvoni (ledipasvir and sofosbuvir), with 2015 income of two billion euros to 2022 sales of 887 million euros, will be laid low with increasing pricing pressure in addition to a reduction in the number of addressable patients.

Oncology will lead the game with five compounds in the top 10, all of which are coming from recent development activities with the exception of Roche’s (ROG: SIX) Herceptin (trastuzumab), 2015 income of 2.117 billion euros to 2022 sales of 1.383 billion euros, which is about to lose floor because of the anticipated release of competing bio-similars.

In the breathing location, while a few new innovations are slowly surfacing, for example, GlaxoSmithKline’s (LSE: GSK) Nucala (mepolizumab), with 2022 sales of 407 million euros), typical competition will force the respiratory blockbusters – Boehringer Ingelheim’s Spiriva (tiotropium), with 2015 sales of 1.421billion euros and 2022 sales of 676 million euros, and GSK’s Seretide/Advair (fluticasone propionate/salmeterol), with 2015 sales of 1.553 billion euros.

To Collaborate Scientific Professionals around the World

Conference Date November 13-14, 2023

For Sponsors & Exhibitors

Speaker Opportunity

Day 1

Past Conference Report

Supported By

Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research Journal of Pharmaceutical Care & Health Systems Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs: Open Access

All accepted abstracts will be published in respective Conference Series International Journals.

Abstracts will be provided with Digital Object Identifier by